Cloudless Sulphurs Are on the Move

Very common in the southern United States and Mexico, Cloudless Sulphur butterflies (Phoebis sennae) are much more rare in the northern states and Canada, at least until late in the summer when some individuals pursue their annual dispersal … north?  For the past few weeks I’ve been seeing them at Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve, near New Hope, in the central part of eastern Pennsylvania.

Cloudless Sulphur on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Look for them flying rapidly while cruising for mates, hunting for caterpillar food plants and laying eggs, or nectaring.  The butterflies I’ve seen have been so busy with the first two activities that I haven’t seen much nectaring.

Cloudless Sulphur laying egg, or ovipositing, on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur laying egg, or ovipositing, on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur egg on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur egg on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphurs specialize on pea family members, primarily Sennas and closely related plants like Partridge Pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata) and Wild Sensitive-plant (C. nictitans) as food plants for their caterpillars.  At Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve the Cloudless Sulphurs seem to prefer Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa, S. marilandica). Partridge Pea is also available here, although not as plentiful, but I haven’t yet seen them use it as a caterpillar food plant.

Cloudless Sulphur caterpillar on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur caterpillar on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

The caterpillars’ coloration blends perfectly with their food plants, varying from yellow to green.  At this location, their overall green background is an exact match for the color of the Wild Senna leaves on which they’re feeding.  The yellow stripe along the length of the caterpillar’s body resembles the leaf mid-rib, where they can be seen resting or feeding.  This camouflage makes it much harder for a hungry bird to spot them!

Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

The caterpillars may eat the entire compound leaf, including mid-rib

Cloudless Sulphur caterpillar eating leaf midrib of Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur caterpillar eating leaf midrib of Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

and leaflets.

Cloudless Sulphur caterpillar eating leaflet of Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur caterpillar eating leaflet of Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

At Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve they are sharing a habitat with Sleepy Orange butterflies, who are usually resident here from July through September, nectaring on a broad variety of flowers, mating, and laying eggs.

Sleepy Orange butterflies, mating

Sleepy Orange butterflies, mating

In the photo below, a Cloudless Sulphur is laying an egg directly opposite a leaf where a Sleepy Orange caterpillar is hiding.

Cloudless Sulphur on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa) laying egg opposite leaf where a Sleepy Orange caterpillar is hiding

Cloudless Sulphur on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa) laying egg opposite leaf where a Sleepy Orange caterpillar is hiding

These two butterfly species have a lot in common.  Sleepy Oranges use the same food plants for their caterpillars, and I have so far seen the same preference for Wild Senna rather than Partridge Pea at this location.  Both Cloudless Sulphurs and Sleepy Oranges seem to prefer using younger plants as caterpillar host plants.

Like Sleepy Oranges, Cloudless Sulphurs are primarily a tropical species.  Their range goes as far south as Argentina. In the moderate temperatures of a southern winter, they survive as adults, mostly inactive, but feeding occasionally.  They are somewhat cold tolerant, flying in fairly cool temperatures for butterflies.

But these bright, sprightly butterflies have an adventurer’s genes.  Most years, some individuals move northward, sometimes reaching as far as Ontario province in Canada, in spite of the fact that they can’t currently survive sustained cold winter temperatures. At least, as far as we know, they can’t.

So why do Cloudless Sulphurs keep pushing north every year if they can’t survive sustained periods of cold winter weather?  How is this beneficial to the species’ continued existence?

A species that can subsist over a broad geographic range in diverse habitats is in a better position to survive over time than one that is more narrowly focused.  If something happens to make one part of the range or habitat inhospitable, the species has many other options for locations that will accommodate their continued existance. The larger a species’ population becomes, and the more diverse the environments to which segments of the population are exposed, the more genetic mutations will result in individuals.  If the same genetic mutation occurs frequently enough, it may lead to an evolutionary change in the species.

Cloudless Sulphur laying egg on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur laying egg on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphurs have evolved so that many of those that head north (or their offspring) make a return southward fall migration, spending the winter in a warm southern climate.

But some Cloudless Sulphurs continue to move north in late summer and fall, and probably die when the cold winter sets in.  But two things could happen to make this exploration of new territory a worthwhile effort for the species.  Warming temperatures could eventually make some of this northern territory moderate enough for the Cloudless Sulphurs to survive the winters as they do in the south.  Or a genetic mutation could occur in the Cloudless Sulphurs that leads to an evolutionary change, enabling them to survive a cold northern winter.  Their caterpillar food plants, Wild Sennas, are available to support them as far north as Ontario and all of the northeastern United States.

Cloudless Sulphur laying egg on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Cloudless Sulphur laying egg on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Resources:

Cech, Rick; Tudor, Guy. Butterflies of the East Coast. 2005.

Glassberg, Jeffrey. Butterflies through Binoculars A Field Guide to Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region. 1993.

Scott, James A. The Butterflies of North America. 1986.

Wilson, Edward O.  The Social Conquest of Earth.  2013

Butterflies and Moths of North America

Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility

Georgia Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Resources Division

USDA Plants Database

Sleepy Orange Butterflies are Back

Sleepy Orange butterflies are back at Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve!

Sleepy Orange butterflies on Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

Sleepy Orange butterflies on Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

Sleepy Orange (Eurema nicippe) butterflies are a tropical species, present year-round from Central America through the southern tier of the United States. They may breed as far north as the southern tip of New Jersey, west to eastern Colorado, then dipping south to near Las Vegas, Nevada, but they are less common in the northern part of their range, and they are not thought to be able to survive the winter much farther north than North Carolina. Sleepy Orange is a species that likes to push the envelope of its territory, with individuals migrating each year to repopulate the northern areas.

So it’s pretty exciting to have Sleepy Oranges at Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve, because it’s considered a rare ‘stray’ in Pennsylvania where the Preserve is located. It’s rare across the Delaware River in much of New Jersey, too. In 2012, ours was the only count circle in Pennsylvania or New Jersey to report Sleepy Oranges in the July 4th North American Butterfly Association Butterfly Count.

Even better, I have seen Sleepy Oranges at Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve in 2006, 2008, and every year from 2010 through 2013, usually from July through September. Yesterday I counted 10 individuals.

What brings them to the Preserve? Likely it’s the reliable presence of one of their favored caterpillar food plants, Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa).

Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)

Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa) flowers

Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa) flowers

Only the presence of this food source has made it possible for Sleepy Oranges to breed at the Preserve. Sleepy Oranges also use other plants in this genus, and Partridge Pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata) and Wild Sensitive Plant (Chamaecrista nictitans) as food plants for their caterpillars. These plants are all pea family members, and contain alkaloids, chemicals that may have a bitter taste to some predators. Sennas also contain another chemical that has laxative properties. It is probable that Sleepy Oranges evolved to specialize on these plants because the chemicals they obtain from this diet offers some protection against predators.

Sleepy Oranges Mating

Sleepy Oranges Mating

There are also plenty of nectar sources at the Preserve for the adult Sleepy Oranges, who are pretty eclectic in their tastes.

Female Sleepy Orange  on Tall Tickseed (Coreopsis triptera), 2013

Female Sleepy Orange on Tall Tickseed (Coreopsis triptera), 2013

Sleepy Orange nectaring on Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), 2008

Sleepy Orange nectaring on Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), 2008

Sleepy Orange nectaring on Heal-all (Prunella vulgaris), 2011

Sleepy Orange nectaring on Heal-all (Prunella vulgaris), 2011

Sleepy Orange nectaring on Cardinal-flower (Lobelia cardinalis), 2012

Sleepy Orange nectaring on Cardinal-flower (Lobelia cardinalis), 2012

Males are also known to dine on minerals, although I usually see them drinking nectar.

Sleepy Orange on Field Thistle (Cirsium discolor), 2006

Sleepy Orange on Field Thistle (Cirsium discolor), 2006

Wondering about this butterfly’s name? It’s not based on behavior, because this sprightly butterfly is very active. The photo below illustrates the characteristics that explain the origin of the name ‘Sleepy Orange’. The curved pattern of dark dots near the center of the upper edge of the forewing are thought to resemble a closed eye, resulting in ‘sleepy’, and the bright orange color, especially coming from the top (dorsal) side of the wing explains the rest. Sleepy Oranges overwinter as adults in the south; their winter color form is a darker red-orange.

Sleepy Orange nectaring on New York Ironweed (Vernonia noveboracensis), 2010

Sleepy Orange nectaring on New York Ironweed (Vernonia noveboracensis), 2010

Given the rarity of this butterfly species in the surrounding area, I can’t help but wonder how Sleepy Oranges have been consistently finding Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve for the past several years. It seems unlikely that this primarily tropical species would be able to survive the winter here, but with warmer winter temperatures, who knows? There are some reports of a southern migration of these butterflies in the fall. Could some of the Preserve’s butterflies have flown far enough south to successfully overwinter, and genetically pass on the knowledge of this location to their offspring? Does the generation that overwinters as adults live long enough to make a return northward migration the following year? Is this location near the Delaware River just a favored migration route for Sleepy Oranges and once they see the food available here they decide to stay? Random chance?

If you have an explanation or theory for their consistent appearance here, I would love to hear it!

Female Sleepy Orange on her caterpillar food plant, Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa), 2013

Female Sleepy Orange on her caterpillar food plant, Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa), 2013

For more on Sleepy Oranges at Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve, click Sleepy Oranges Overwintering in Pennsylvania.

Resources:

Brock, Jim P.; Kauffman, Ken. Kaufman Field Guide to Butterflies of North America. 2003.

Capon, Brian. Botany for Gardeners. 2005

Cech, Rick; Tudor, Guy. Butterflies of the East Coast. 2005.

Glassberg, Jeffrey. A Swift Guide to Butterflies of North America. 2012.

Glassberg, Jeffrey. Butterflies through Binoculars A Field Guide to Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region. 1993.

http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species/Abaeis-nicippe

http://www.gardenswithwings.com/facts-info/a0810MonarchMigration.html

http://www.learner.org/jnorth/tm/monarch/OtherMigrants.html