Bloodroot

In spite of the weather whiplash we’ve experienced since late February, spring wildflowers are slowly, cautiously beginning to emerge and bloom.  One of the first spring blossoms I saw this season was Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis).

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

The sight of this stunning white blossom holding its face up to the sun was especially welcome after a snowy, chilly March.

With each sunny day more flower shoots make their way through their winter blanket of fallen leaves.  As Bloodroot emerges, it leads with a flower stem, each one wrapped by a single leaf.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) emerging from its winter blanket of leaves

The flowers open as the temperatures warm, advertising their presence to early flying pollinators.  The veins in the pure white petals, contrasted with the yellow stamens surrounding the pistil in the center of the flower make a perfect target for foraging pollinators.  The stamens are the male reproductive parts, the pistils are the female reproductive parts.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

The most likely flower visitors are early flying bees or flies that can tolerate low temperatures.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) with Bee

Each plant species evolves to utilize its energy to maximize the chances of survival and reproduction.  Like Hepatica and some other early spring flowers, Bloodroot’s strategy is to produce an enticing floral display whose only reward is pollen;  the flowers don’t produce nectar.  This works, because pollen is an important food source for many of the insects active at this time of year.  Bees consume pollen, and female bees also collect it to feed their larvae.  Flies and beetles visit flowers for their nutritious pollen.  Not many of the insects that prefer nectar, like butterflies, are active at the time Bloodroot is blooming, so there would be little added benefit in offering it.

As unpredictable as spring weather is, even the hardiest insects may not always be available in the short window of time a Bloodroot flower is open for business.  Each flower remains open for about three days, closing at night and on rainy days to protect its pollen when insects are unlikely to be active.

When a Bloodroot flower opens, its stigma, located at the tip of the pistil, is receptive.  Pollen must be deposited on the stigma in order for pollination to occur. At this time, the stamens are curved away from the stigma to clear the way for an insect’s access to the receptive stigma, hopefully bringing pollen.

Newly open Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) flower, in the female phase

After a few hours, some of the anthers, located at the tips of the stamens, begin to dehisce, or open, making pollen available.  The remaining anthers open gradually over the three-day period that Bloodroot flowers are typically open. The continuing separation of the anthers from the stigma helps minimize the likelihood of self-pollination.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) flower with some of the anthers open to make pollen available

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) flower. Notice the pollen around the edges of the anthers where they have opened to make pollen available.

If after three days the flower has not been pollinated with the assistance of an insect, the stamens will begin to curve inward toward the center of the flower. The anthers touch the stigma, depositing the pollen.  In Bloodroot’s world, it’s better to self-pollinate to ensure reproduction than not to reproduce at all.  The flower drops its petals within hours of pollination.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) flower with some of the anthers beginning to curve back towards the stigma to enable self-pollination

After pollination, the thick, almost succulent leaves that protected the flower stem gradually open, expand, and capture energy from the sun for several more weeks.

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) leaf in late spring. the leaf will continue to photosynthesize for much of the summer.

Pollinated flowers produce a fruit capsule that develops under the protection of the expanding leaves.  The capsule splits open when it’s ripe, making the seeds inside available for dispersal.  Like many early spring blooming wildflowers, Bloodroot has evolved to partner with animals, in this case ants, to disperse its seeds.  Each seed has  a packet of food called an elaiosome attached.  The elaiosome’s chemical make-up mimics the nutrition of insects, a preferred food for ants.  The ants take the seeds to their homes, where they eat the elaiosome and discard the seed, effectively planting it.

Both the common name, Bloodroot, and the genus, Sanguinaria, refer to the color of the sap found in the plants’ foliage and rhizomes (the plants’ underground parts).  This sap contains chemicals with a narcotic effect that Bloodroot produces to protect itself from herbivores. This is a common and highly effective strategy of the Poppy (Paperaceae) family, of which Bloodroot is a member.  As a result, Bloodroot does well even where there is serious deer pressure.

Native Americans have used Bloodroot for many medicinal purposes.  One of the chemical constituents of Bloodroot, sanguinarine, has also been used commercially in toothpaste and mouthwash to help prevent gingivitis. The red sap is also used as a dye.

Bloodroot can be found in rich, deciduous woods throughout much of the eastern two-thirds of the United States and Canada.  Look for it and other spring wildflowers along a wooded trail near you!

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

Related Posts

Hepatica’s Survival Strategy

A Carpet of Spring Beauty, Woven by… Ants!

A Tale of Two Spring Beauties

Dutchman’s Breeches and Squirrel Corn

Resources

Eastman, John.  The Book of Forest and Thicket.  1992.

Gracie, Carol.  Spring Wildflowers of the Northeast. 2012.

Hoffmann, David.  Medical Herbalism.  2003.

Illinois Wildflowers

Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center

Native American Ethnobotany Database

 

 

 

A Winter Show-off

My first encounter with Round-headed Bush Clover (Lespedeza capitata) was in late fall when the warm brown seed heads caught my eye.

Round-headed Bush Clover (Lespedeza capitata)

Throughout fall through winter, this plant is at its most dramatic, easily compelling attention away from nearby vegetation.

Round-headed Bush Clover (Lespedeza capitata)

When in bloom, Round-headed Bush Clover’s appearance is much more subtle, blending in with the grasses, Mountain Mints, asters, goldenrods and other plants that may share its territory.

Round-headed Bush Clover (Lespedeza capitata)

Round-headed Bush Clover has dense clusters, or heads, of small white flowers.  ‘Capitata’ in the scientific name means ‘growing in a dense head’, reflecting this arrangement.  The upper petal of each flower has a bit of an art deco vibe – they’re smudged with pink at the throat with ray-like veins radiating above.  This display may look delicately pretty to us, but to the many bees that visit the flowers it’s a beacon advertising food availability.

Round-headed Bush Clover (Lespedeza capitata)

The flower petals are protected by hairy sepals, green when the flowers are in bloom, then turning deep brown for fall and winter.  It’s these brown sepals that provide the eye-catching winter display.   If Round-headed Bush Clover’s strategy for enticing pollinators to visit is successful, dry (not fleshy) fruits will be tucked inside the dried sepals.

Hairs on plants are often an adaptation to protect the plant from being eaten, or too discourage free-loaders from stealing nectar when the flowers are blooming.  For example, ants visit flowers for nectar but rarely help with pollination because they are not a good anatomical match for the flowers’ reproductive structures, nor do the ants have the type of surface to which pollen might adhere.  The hairy sepals surrounding the flowers are likely to discourage ants from foraging the flowers, preserving the nectar for more effective flower visitors.

Round-headed Bush Clover (Lespedeza capitata)

Round-headed Bush Clover has three-part compound leaves, an arrangement that is common with clovers. It grows to a height of two to five feet (.6 – 1.5 meters).  Although the plant is somewhat shrubby-looking, it is herbaceous, that is, its above ground parts die back in the winter, and new shoots emerge from its roots for the next growing season.

In addition to offering food for pollinators, Round-headed Bush Clover is a food plant for the caterpillars of several butterflies, including the Silver-spotted Skipper,

Silver-spotted Skipper ovipositing (laying an egg) on Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana). Silver-spotted Skippers have the unusual habit of laying their eggs on plants near their caterpillar food plants.

Eastern-tailed Blue,

Eastern-tailed Blue on Butterflyweed (Asclepias tuberosa)

Gray Hairstreak,

Gray Hairstreak on White Clover (Trifolium repens)

Southern Cloudywing, Northern Cloudywing, Confused Cloudywing, Hoary Edge, and the Io Moth.

Dark-eyed Juncos, Mourning Doves, Bobwhites and Wild Turkeys are among the birds that may eat the seeds when they are available.

Dark-eyed Junco

Round-headed Bush Clover is native in most of the eastern two-thirds of the United States, and in Ontario and New Brunswick in Canada.  Searching for it in a meadow near you gives you a reason to go out for a winter walk!

Round-headed Bush Clover (Lespedeza capitata)

Resources

Beadle, David; Leckie, Seabrooke. Peterson Field Guide to Moths of Northeastern North America. 2012.

Cech, Rick; Tudor, Guy.  Butterflies of the East Coast.  2005.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A.  The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Stearn, William T. Stearn’s Dictionary of Plant Names.  1996

Illinois Wildflowers

Natural History Museum Hosts Database

USDA NRCS Plants Database

 

 

Bewitching Witch-hazel

It’s well into December, and American Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) is still in bloom, brightening our winter shade garden and the woodland understory.

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) in bloom, with open fruit capsules

The flowers are arranged in clusters, usually in threes.  Each flower has four long, spidery, streamer-like petals.  In the center of the flowers, you can see other flower parts that also come in fours.  Four stamens (male reproductive parts) are tucked in between the petals, protected from below by the four sepals that protected the flower until it was ready to open.  The pistils (female reproductive parts) can be seen in the very center of the flowers.

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) flower beginning to bloom. The anthers have not yet open to release pollen.

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) flower beginning to bloom. The anthers have opened to release pollen.

Even though Witch-hazel blooms when the weather is cooler, it relies primarily on insects for pollination.  Various fly species are the most frequent flower visitors. This is not too surprising, since many flies are active at fairly low temperatures. Several species of bees, small wasps, moths and even beetles have also been documented as potential Witch-hazel pollinators.  They are attracted by the color of the petals, a mild (to me, at least) fragrance, and the fact that there is not much else in bloom.  If the weather doesn’t cooperate and not enough insects are active, witch-hazel is capable of self-pollination, although cross-pollination with the assistance of an insect is preferred, since this produces a stronger genetic result.  Fertilization is delayed until spring, after which fruits begin to develop.

Even during and after our first snowstorm of the season with about 5 inches of wet snow, these tough little flowers hung on, looking as fresh as ever.

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), still blooming in spite of the snow.

Such tenacity can pay off.  While looking at the flower photos that I took during the storm, I found a moth taking refuge on a branch near the flowers, waiting for the temperatures to warm up enough to become active and search for nectar.  That little moth could make a nice snack for a Chickadee and Titmouse searching the seemingly baren winter branches.

A moth sheltering on Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) during a December snow storm.

The flowers are accompanied by fruit capsules that look like small flowers carved from wood. These fruit capsules are the product of the previous year’s successfully pollinated flowers.

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) in bloom, with open fruit capsules

In early October, as the leaves began to turn from green to yellow, the fruit capsules and flower buds were still tightly closed.  As this season’s flowers began to bloom, the fruit capsules opened explosively, ejecting the seeds several feet away.  The seeds will wait through two winters before they germinate.  Ruffed Grouse, Northern Bobwhite, Wild Turkey, as well as some rabbits and squirrels eat the fruit.

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) in early fall, with fruit capsules and flower buds still tightly closed

Witch-hazel is well-known for its use as an astringent and anti-inflammatory agent.  You may have a bottle in your medicine cabinet now.  Witch-hazel is used to treat wounds and hemorrhoids, and it’s an ingredient in some cosmetics.  It acts as a styptic to stop bleeding, and reduces bruising and inflammation.  It also helps reduce the chances of infection.

It’s not by accident that Witch-hazel has these properties.  The tannins found in the leaves and inner bark of Witch-hazel provide these benefits.  Witch-hazel produces these compounds as protection from herbivores, and to inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria that might be harmful to the plant.  Fortunately for us, humans can also benefit.

The tannins are not 100% successful in deterring herbivores.  There are some insects that specialize on Witch-hazel as their source of food, including the caterpillars of several moth species.  There are also two aphid species that produce eye-catching galls. (A gall is a growth that is the plant’s reaction to being used as a source of food and shelter by an organism such as an insect, fungus or bacteria. Galls seldom cause any harm to the plant, and they may stimulate the plant to produce more protective chemicals.)

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) in bloom, with spiny Witch-hazel bud galls

The spiny witch-hazel bud gall aphid (Hamamelistes spinosus) is named for the appearance of the gall the plant produces from bud tissue in response to being used as a home by the developing aphids.  At this time of year, the gall looks woody.  At a quick glance it might be mistaken for a fruit capsule, until you notice the spines.

Earlier in the season, the spiny witch-hazel bud gall is green and fleshy.

Spiny Witch-hazel bud gall, with ants. What’s the attraction?

It’s interesting that there are so many ants swarming this gall.  If the gall were open and the aphids were available, the ants would likely be milking them for delicious ‘honeydew’ (excrement).  But the aphids have not reached maturity, they are still safely encased inside the gall.

Ants are often very beneficial to plants.  They disperse the seeds of many spring blooming wildflowers, for one thing.  Ants also provide protection from herbivores like caterpillars who might eat a plant’s leaves, flowers or buds, because other insects are an important part of an ant’s diet.  Plants often emit a chemical call to arms to alert ants and other predators to the availability of insect food. The plant may offer an additional reward and reason to stick around in the form of nectar not associated with flowers (extra-floral nectaries) or resins, specifically aimed at payment to their protectors.

It’s a mystery to me what caused the ants in this photo to visit.  Maybe this Witch-hazel detected the presence of a new generation of insect eggs (not visible to me), and sent out a distress signal to the ants.  Any other ideas?

Pristine leaves unfold in spring, but they are often quickly put to use as food and shelter by another aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis), the Witch-hazel leaf or cone gall aphid.  This gall resembles a cone, or a witch’s hat.

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) leaves in spring

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) leaf with Witch-hazel cone gall, caused by an aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis)

Both of these aphids spend part of their life cycle on birch trees.

Witch-hazel branches have been used as divining rods to find underground water sources, a practice sometimes referred to as ‘water witching’.  In theory at least, the branch would point or bend towards the ground when it detected water.  The ‘Witch’ in ‘Witch-hazel’ is based on an Anglo-Saxon word, ‘wych’, that means ‘bending’.

Witch-hazel is a multi-stemmed shrub that can grow to a height of about 16 feet (5 meters), and can tolerate shade.  It is native in the Eastern half of the United States, and Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in Canada.

Enjoy these bright blossoms while they last!

Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) in bloom

 

Related Posts

A Carpet of Spring Beauty, Woven by Ants!

Will Work for Food – Extra-floral Nectaries

Resources

Capon, Brian.  Botany for Gardeners.  2005

Eastman, John.  The Book of Forest and Thicket.  1992.

Eiseman, Charley; Charney, Noah.  Tracks & Sign of Insects and Other Invertebrates.  2010.

Foster, Steven; Duke, James A.  A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America.  2000.

Hoffmann, David.  Medical Herbalism.  2003.

Martin, Alexander C.;  Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L.  American Wildlife & Plants A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits.  1951.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A.  The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Williams, Ernest H. Jr.  The Nature Handbook – A Guide to Observing the Great Outdoors.  2005.

Clemson Co-operative Extension – River Birch Aphid

Illinois Wildflowers

USDA NRCS Plant Database

USDA FEIS

 

 

Crayon-colored Hickories

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa)

The compound leaves of Hickory (Carya species) trees still clinging to their branches are displaying colors that remind me of crayons:  yellow-green, yellow-orange, lemon-yellow, chestnut, burnt umber.  Together with the reds and browns of Oaks, the tans and peach of American Beech, they are part of the mid-fall forest pallette.   Shagbark (Carya ovata), Mockernut (C. tomentosa) and Bitternut (C. cordiformis) are the Hickories I encounter most often.

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa).

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa).

Those Hickory leaves may have supported up to 200 different species of butterflies and moths as food for their caterpillars, all without any negative impact on the appearance of the trees. Some of the species Hickories support are Banded and Hickory Hairstreak butterflies, and many moths, including Hickory Tussock, Yellow-shouldered Slug, and the dramatic Hickory Horned Devil, the largest of our native North American caterpillars.

Banded Hairstreak on Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum). Banded Hairstreak caterpillars eat Hickory leaves, as well as some other woody species.

Banded Hairstreak on Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum). Banded Hairstreak caterpillars eat Hickory leaves, as well as some other woody species.

Hickory Tussock Moth Caterpillar

Hickory Tussock Moth Caterpillar

Yellow-shouldered Slug

Yellow-shouldered Slug

The aptly named, acrobatic Hickory Horned Devil caterpillar.

The aptly named, athletic, Hickory Horned Devil caterpillar.

All of those caterpillars are fair game for birds, looking for food for themselves and their growing offspring. Insects, especially caterpilIars, are an important source of food for birds.  It can take thousands of caterpillars to raise a hungry clutch of baby birds.

Wood Thrush at the nest with babies

Wood Thrush at the nest with babies

Some caterpillars may fall victim to other predators, like spiders, predatory wasps or flies, and assassin bugs.

Brown Assassin Bug (Acholla multispinosa) on Bitternut Hickory bud.

Brown Assassin Bug (Acholla multispinosa) on Bitternut Hickory bud.

Hickory nuts also supply food for animals, including people. The husks have four sections that split open to reveal the hard shell protecting the nut ‘meat’ inside.

Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) nuts

Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) nuts

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa) nuts split partially open, like this one.

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa) nuts split partially open, like this one.

Hickory nut on the right, empty husk pieces on the left

Hickory nut on the right, empty husk pieces on the left

Eastern Chipmunks, Red, Gray, Fox and Flying Squirrels, Raccoons, and rabbits all eat Hickory nuts. Squirrels may bury some of the nuts rather than eating them right away.  This habit helps to disperse the Hickories if the squirrels don’t come back and eat the nuts at a later date.

Eastern Chipmunk (with full cheeks!)

Eastern Chipmunk (with full cheeks!)

Gray Squirrel

Gray Squirrel

Fox may also eat Hickory nuts, or they may eat the smaller animals who eat the nuts.

Red Fox eating Gray Squirrel

Red Fox eating Gray Squirrel

Wild Turkeys, Bobwhites, Red-bellied Woodpeckers, Blue Jays, Rose-breasted Grosbeaks and even Wood Ducks are among the birds that consume the tastier species of Hickory nuts.

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Male Wood Duck in non-breeding plumage

Male Wood Duck in non-breeding plumage

Hickory trees provide food and building material for humans, too.   Shagbark is the species whose nuts are most often sold commercially.  As you might guess from its name, Bitternut Hickory is not sought after for its nuts.  Pecans (Carya illinoinensis) are in this same genus and are an important commercial crop.  Hickory sap can be used to make syrup or other sweeteners.

Shagbark is also the species whose wood is most often used commercially for making handles, ladder rungs, wheel spokes, flooring, and a hickory-smoked flavor for cooking. Named for its shaggy strips of bark, Shagbark Hickory stands out from the crowd.

Can you pick the Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) out of the crowd?

Can you pick the Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) out of the crowd?

The bark offers warm, dry accommodations for insects and others trying survive the winter.

Spider web on Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata)

Spider web on Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata)

Eastern Comma butterflies survive the winter as adults, if they can find a warm dry shelter like a space under the loose bark of Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata).

Eastern Comma butterflies survive the winter as adults, if they can find a warm dry shelter like a space under the loose bark of Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata).

Mockernut Hickory also has distinctive bark, but in a completely different way. Its gray, smooth-looking, corky exterior forms sinuous ridges along the length of the trunk.

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa). Notice the curved ridges in the bark, especially in places where branches have fallen off.

Look for Hickory trees even after their leaves fall. You may be able to identify them by their bark and their buds.  Hickories typically have a single large end bud at the tip of their branches that is usually quite distinctive, different for each species.  There are smaller buds spaced alternately along the length of the branches.

Mockernut Hickory buds are somewhat rounded, echoing the curved pattern of the bark ridges.

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa) branch in winter. Notice the large end bud with rounded sides.

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa) branch in winter. Notice the large end bud with rounded sides.

Shagbark Hickory usually retains contrasting bud scales, which you might think of as being reminiscent of the shaggy bark.

Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) bud. Notice the bod scales hugging the sides.

Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) bud. Notice the scales hugging the sides of the bud.

Bitternut Hickory buds are a bright mustard color that is difficult to mistake for anything else.

Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis), showing its distinctive mustard-colored buds.

Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis), showing its distinctive mustard-colored buds.

As winter turns to spring, watch for these buds to swell and unfold like flowers.

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa) leaves unfolding in spring.

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa) leaves unfolding in spring.

Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) in spring

Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) in spring

The range for Shagbark and Bitternut Hickory includes much of the eastern two-thirds of the United States, and Ontario and Quebec provinces in Canada. Mockernut’s range is similar, but it does not include the Canadian provinces, or some of the northern tier of the United States.

Enjoy the colorful foliage while it lasts!

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa)

Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa)

Related Posts

Nutritious Fall Foliage: What Makes Leaves So Colorful

American Beech

In Praise of Black Walnut Trees

Resources

Cech, Rick; Tudor, Guy. Butterflies of the East Coast.  2005.

Eastman, John. The Book of Forest and Thicket.  1992.

Marshall, Stephen A. Insects Their Natural History and Diversity. 2006.

Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. American Wildlife & Plants A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits.  1951.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A. The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Stearn, William T. Stearn’s Dictionary of Plant Names.  1996

Tallamy, Douglas W. Bringing Nature Home.  2007

Wagner, David L.; Caterpillars of Eastern North America, 2005.

Illinois Wildflowers
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/trees/plants/btnt_hickory.html
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/trees/plants/mock_hickory.html

Tallamy, Douglas W. Bringing Nature Home

USDA NRCS Plant Database
https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CAOV2
https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=caco15
https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CAAL27

The Wood Database