Bountiful Blue Wood Aster

Blue Wood or Heart-leaved Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium) began its seasonal bloom in late September, and amazingly, at the end of November it’s still possible to find some blossoms.

Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium) with Sweat Bee (Halictus species)

Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium) with Sweat Bee (Halictus species)

Like all Aster (Asteraceae) family members, each flower ‘head’ of Blue Wood Aster consists of many tiny flowers that bloom gradually over a period of several weeks, offering nectar and pollen to a variety of flower visitors.  Each Blue Wood Aster flower head has an outer ring of ice blue petal-like ray flowers designed to advertise this feast. Tiny tubular disk flowers form the center of the display; this is where Blue Wood Aster makes its bountiful food available in hope that while dining, visitors will pick up pollen and transfer it to another plant of the same species, enabling pollination to occur.

Blue Wood Aster’s disk flowers are pale yellow when they’re in bud and when they first open. They turn pink or magenta as they age, and when they have been successfully pollinated.  This color change is a signal to pollinators, directing them to the receptive yellow flowers which are not yet pollinated and that will reward them with nectar, and steering them away from blossoms that are already satisfactorily pollinated and will not produce a nectar reward.  This evolutionary adaptation makes the most efficient use of both the plant’s and the potential pollinator’s efforts.

To share in the bounty offered by Blue Wood Aster, I invite you to a virtual time-lapse visit to our garden in central New Jersey.  You can see the last Blue Wood Aster blossoms for this year, and a selection of the many of the visitors that this lovely plant hosted throughout the season. Notice that the potential pollinators are generally visiting the yellow disk flowers, those that are still open for business, not the pinkish flowers that have shut down their nectar production.

Bumble Bees are the most frequent visitors.

Bumble Bee (Bombus species) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Bumble Bee (Bombus species) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

An athletic Bee drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium). I'm not completely sure whether it's a Bumble Bee or an Eastern Carpenter Bee.

An athletic Bee drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium). I’m not completely sure whether it’s a Bumble Bee or an Eastern Carpenter Bee.

But many species of Sweat Bees (Halictid bees), and even Honey Bees dine on Blue Wood Aster nectar and pollen.

Sweat Bee (Halictus species) with Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Sweat Bee (Halictus species) with Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Sweat Bee (Halictus species) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Sweat Bee (Halictus species) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A gang of Sweat Bees (Halictus species) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A gang of Sweat Bees (Halictus species) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Sweat Bees (Halictid bees) of two different species visiting Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Sweat Bees (Halictid bees) of two different species visiting Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Sweat Bee (Halictid bee) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Sweat Bee (Halictid bee) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Sweat Bee (Augochlorella species) investigating Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Sweat Bee (Augochlorella species) investigating Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Sweat Bee (Augochlorella species) investigating Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Sweat Bee (Augochlorella species) investigating Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) nectaring from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) nectaring from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Mason Wasp stopped by for nourishment.

A Mason Wasp (Ancistrocerus species) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Mason Wasp (Ancistrocerus species) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Many fly species paused to drink, most disguised as bees or wasps in an attempt to appear threatening to potential predators.

A Syrphid or Flower fly drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower fly drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower Fly (Toxomerous geminatus) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower Fly (Toxomerous geminatus) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower Fly (Syrphus ribesii) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower Fly (Syrphus ribesii) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower Fly (Sericomyia chrysotoxoides) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower Fly (Sericomyia chrysotoxoides) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower Fly (Eristalis tenax) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

A Syrphid or Flower Fly (Eristalis tenax) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Greenbottle Fly (Lucilia sericata) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Greenbottle Fly (Lucilia sericata) drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Even late season butterflies and moths were able to refuel on Blue Wood Aster nectar.

A Clouded Sulphur butterfly drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium). Notice the heart-shaped leaves that are characteristic of this species.

A Clouded Sulphur butterfly drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium). Notice the heart-shaped leaves that are characteristic of this species.

A Pearl Crescent butterfly drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium). Not only do these butterflies benefit from the nectar, but their caterpillars dine on the foliage of several aster species.

A Pearl Crescent butterfly drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium). Not only do these butterflies benefit from the nectar, but their caterpillars dine on the foliage of several aster species.

A Corn Earworm Moth drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium).

A Corn Earworm Moth drinking nectar from Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium).

A Yellow-collared Scape Moth (Cisseps fulvicollis) and Bumble Bee on Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium).

A Yellow-collared Scape Moth (Cisseps fulvicollis) and Bumble Bee on Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium).

Meanwhile, a Brown-hooded Owlet Moth caterpillar dined on the leaves and spent flowers of Blue Wood Aster.

Brown-hooded Owlet caterpillar eating Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium) leaves and flowers.

Brown-hooded Owlet caterpillar eating Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium) leaves and flowers.

Blue Wood Aster is native in much of the eastern half of the United States, and in British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia in Canada. It can be found in a variety of habitats, including woodlands, meadows and roadsides.  There may still be some blooming near you!

 

Related Posts

Asters Yield a Treasure Trove!

New England Asters – A Hotbed of Activity!

Mysterious Bumble Bee Behavior

Resources

Eaton, Eric R.; Kauffman, Ken. Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America.  2007.

Eastman, John. The Book of Forest and Thicket.  1992.

Mader, Eric; Shepherd, Matthew; Vaughan, Mace; Black, Scott Hoffman; LeBuhn, Gretchen. Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies. 2011.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A. The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Wagner, David L.; Caterpillars of Eastern North America, 2005.

Wilson, Joseph S.; Carril, Olivia Messinger. The Bees in Your Backyard. 2016.

USDA NRCS Plant Database

 

Mysterious Bumble Bee Behavior

On a cool day in early November, my husband spotted a cluster of Bumble Bees on Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium) in the garden outside our living room window.  A queen bee was at the center of the group.  She was clinging to a flower, with as many as four other bees grasping her.  Amazingly, the queen was supporting the weight of the entire group.

Bumble Bees (probably Common Eastern Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens)) on Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Bumble Bees (probably Common Eastern Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens)) on Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

We watched for about an hour.  During that time the number of bees clutching the queen varied a bit as some of the bees came and went.

Bumble Bees (probably Common Eastern Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) on Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

Bumble Bees (probably Common Eastern Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) on Blue Wood Aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

It was a puzzle trying to figure out what was going on. Since the temperatures were fairly low, could they just be huddling together for warmth?

Later, when I looked at the photos I had taken, an explanation for their behavior presented itself. The smaller bees appeared to be males, one actively mating with the queen, with the others doggedly hoping for their turn.  (A bunch of hangers-on and wanna-bees. Sorry!)

Bumble Bees (probably Common Eastern Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens), one mating with the queen.

Bumble Bees (probably Common Eastern Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens), one mating with the queen.

In the Bumble Bee world, the only females that mate are queens. The primary role of male Bumble Bees is to pass on their genes if chosen by a queen for a chance to mate.  Queen Bumble Bees decide who their mating partners will be.  When a queen is ready she’ll chose the lucky male that will be the recipient of this honor.

Bumble Bees (probably Common Eastern Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens), one mating with the queen.

Bumble Bees (probably Common Eastern Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens), one mating with the queen.

This gathering may have been the male bees’ last chance to pass on their genes. The males, any non-breeding females and the old queen from a colony will die as the cold winter temperatures set in.

Only newly emerged queen Bumble Bees survive through the winter. Soon after successful mating, this new queen will seek an underground winter hibernation shelter. If she survives the stresses of winter, she will be among the first bees we see next spring, foraging on spring ephemerals.  She’ll look for a nest site, provision it with nectar and pollen, and begin laying eggs for the new Bumble Bee generation.

Queen Bumble Bee in spring on Virginia Bluebells (Mertensia virginica).

Queen Bumble Bee in spring on Virginia Bluebells (Mertensia virginica).

 

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Dr. Randi Eickel of Toadshade Wildflower Farm for help identifying the bees and their behavior.

Thanks to Jeff Worthington for ‘wanna-bees’.

Resources

Goulson, Dave. A Sting in the Tale.  2015.

Heinrich, Bernd. Bumblebee Economics.  2004.

Colla, Sheila; Richardson, Leif; Williams, Paul. Bumble Bees of the Eastern United States.  2011.

Bumblebee Conservation Trust – The Bumblebee Lifecycle

 

 

 

Sneezeweed

Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale) blooms for many weeks, starting in late summer and continuing through mid-fall, offering nectar and pollen for hungry insect foragers late in the growing season.

Sachem on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Sachem on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

It is a member of the Aster family, a vast group second only to the Orchid family in the number of species it includes. There are Aster family members blooming in early spring, but mid-summer through the end of fall is the time that ‘asters’ really dominate the landscape.  Coneflowers, goldenrods, asters, bonesets, tickseeds, beggar-ticks, dandelions and more all belong to this huge plant family.

Goldenrods and New England Asters (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) are Aster (Asteraceae) family members

Goldenrods and New England Asters (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) are Aster (Asteraceae) family members

The Aster family is also sometimes called the Composite family, because their many tiny flowers grow in clusters, called heads, that look to us like a single flower. There are two types of flowers possible in an ‘aster’ flower head, ray flowers and disk flowers.  Sneezeweed has both.  Ray flowers look like petals, and disk flowers are tiny tubular flowers clustered in the center of the flower head.  When both ray and disk flowers are present in a flower head, the ray flowers may not produce any nectar or have any reproductive parts.  In this case, the function of the petal-like ray flowers is primarily to add to the floral display and landing platform that will entice pollinators to come to visit.  The disk flowers are where all the action takes place, offering nectar and pollen to potential pollinators.  The photo below shows a butterfly foraging on the disk flowers of a Sneezeweed flower head.

Pearl Crescent drinking nectar from the disk flowers of a Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale) flower head (inflorescence). The petal-like floral structures are ray flowers.

Pearl Crescent drinking nectar from the disk flowers of a Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale) flower head (inflorescence). The petal-like floral structures are ray flowers.

Which brings us to the name, Sneezeweed. Is this the plant that has been causing you to sneeze, making your eyes itchy and watery, and your nose runny?  No!  Well, maybe it’s goldenrod?  No again!  We can tell just by looking at these plants that they are unlikely to cause allergies.  How?  Because they have bright, attractive flowers.  Plants that have showy flowers have evolved to use their floral display and food rewards to entice animals to visit.  The animals, usually insects, become unwitting partners with the plants, helping them to achieve their pollination goals.  The flowers’ pollen is heavy and waxy, designed to adhere to a pollinator’s body and highly unlikely to float in the wind.  Plants that are wind pollinated, like Ragweed, have light, fluffy pollen that may find its way up your nose or in your eyes.

The flowers are visited by bees, butterflies, moths and beetles.

Sweat Bee on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Sweat Bee on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Pearl Crescent on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Pearl Crescent on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Ailanthus Webworm Moth on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Ailanthus Webworm Moth on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

A soldier beetle, Pennsylvania Leatherwing (Chauliognathus pensylvanicus) on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

A soldier beetle, Pennsylvania Leatherwing (Chauliognathus pensylvanicus) on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Sneezeweed flowers seem to be a popular location for meeting members of the opposite sex, at least if you are an insect.

Pearl Crescents on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Pearl Crescents on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Two pairs of beetles on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale). The dark pair in the upper right of the flower head are a lady beetle species, Microwesia misella.

Two pairs of beetles on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale). The dark pair in the upper right of the flower head are a lady beetle species, Microwesia misella.

Then why is this plant called Sneezeweed? Because many Native American tribes used dried flowers or leaves of this plant as snuff to induce sneezing, especially as a treatment for colds.  Gardeners considering using this plant may find its alternative common name, Helen’s Flower, more appealing.  This name is a reflection of Sneezeweed’s genus, Helenium, and a reference to Helen of Troy.

Sneezeweed has chemicals that are toxic to mammals, so it is highly deer resistant. It is native in 47 of the 48 the contiguous United States (New Hampshire is the exception), and much of Canada.  Sneezeweed can be found in sunny locations with moist or wet soil, in marshes, along river or stream banks and in wet meadows.

Sneezeweed – Not the most enticing name for such a beautiful flower!

Sachem on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Sachem on Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

Related Posts

Asters Yield a Treasure Trove

New England Asters – A Hotbed of Activity!

Fall Allergies? Don’t Blame Goldenrod!

Feasting on Green-headed Coneflower

Resources

Evans, Arthur V. Beetles of Eastern North America.  2014.

Native American Ethnobotany Database

USDA Forest Service Plant of the Week

USDA NRCS Plant Database

 

 

 

 

 

Jewelweed Has a Back-up Plan

Jewelweed leaves emerge from the soil in early spring, the plant continuing to grow and mature until it finally begins to bloom in mid-to-late summer, and on through early fall. The name ‘Jewelweed’ has a few explanations, but the one I like best is that it’s a reflection of the fact that the surface of Jewelweed leaves causes water to bead up, glistening like a jewel.

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Sweat Bee (Halictid species). Notice the jewel-like drops and silvery sheen of water on the leaves.

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Sweat Bee (Halictid species). Notice the jewel-like drops and silvery sheen of water on the leaves.

There are two Jewelweed species that are common in eastern North America. One has orange flowers with dark reddish-orange spots or lines at the throat.  Some common names for this orange-flowered species are Jewelweed, Spotted Jewelweed, or Spotted Touch-me-not (Impatiens capensis).

Jewelweed or Spotted Touch-me-not (Impatiens capensis)

Jewelweed or Spotted Touch-me-not (Impatiens capensis)

The other species has yellow flowers, sometimes with reddish-brown dots at the throat, and is known as Pale Jewelweed, Yellow Jewelweed or Pale Touch-me-not (Impatiens pallida).

Pale Jewelweed or Pale Touch-me-not (Impatiens pallida)

Pale Jewelweed or Pale Touch-me-not (Impatiens pallida)

These Jewelweed species are annuals, meaning that each plant dies at the end of the growing season. In order for the species to continue to survive, it must produce seeds each year.  Jewelweed has two strategies to make sure that happens.

Jewelweed’s primary strategy for reproduction is to produce showy flowers that will entice animals to visit, and transfer pollen from one plant to another, successfully achieving cross-pollination.

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Bumble Bee (Bombus species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Bumble Bee (Bombus species)

When Jewelweed flowers open, their male reproductive parts (the stamens), mature first, making pollen available for transfer from the anthers at the stamen tips.

Pale Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) with mature stamens at the inside top of the entrance of the blossom

Pale Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) with mature stamens at the inside top of the entrance of the blossom

Later, the stamens wither and are replaced by the female reproductive parts (the pistils), the receptive stigmas at their tips waiting for a flower visitor to brush them with pollen.

Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) with mature pistil at the inside top of the entrance of the blossom. (Being visited by a mystery critter!)

Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) with mature pistil at the inside top of the entrance of the blossom. (Being visited by a mystery critter!)

Jewelweed’s showy flowers produce plenty of nectar to lure potential pollinators to visit. The nectar is found in long spurs at the back of the tubular flowers, so a visitor with a long tongue is most likely to have success accessing this treat.  The orange-flowered Jewelweed attracts a broad variety of insect visitors, including several bee species,

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Bumble Bee (Bombus species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Bumble Bee (Bombus species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Yellow Bumble Bee (Bombus fervidus)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Yellow Bumble Bee (Bombus fervidus)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Honey Bee

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Honey Bee

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Sweat Bee (Agapostemon species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Sweat Bee (Agapostemon species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Sweat Bee (Halictid species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Sweat Bee (Halictid species)

flies,

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Flower Fly (Copestylum species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Flower Fly (Copestylum species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Flower Fly (Syrphid species)

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Flower Fly (Syrphid species)

wasps,

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Yellowjacket

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Yellowjacket

and even beetles.

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Northern Corn Rootworm Beetles

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with Northern Corn Rootworm Beetles

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with beetle, probably Spotted Cucumber Beetle

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) with beetle, probably Spotted Cucumber Beetle

These beetles are interested in consuming floral tissue, and are probably not very helpful in assisting Jewelweed in attaining its pollination goal.

Given their anatomy and feeding style, Bumble Bees are among the most likely to help successfully pollinate the flowers. They are the most frequent visitors to Pale Jewelweed.

Pale Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) with Bumble Bee (Bombus species), at Morrisville Riverfront Preserve, Morrisville, PA

Pale Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) with Bumble Bee (Bombus species), at Morrisville Riverfront Preserve, Morrisville, PA

Pale Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) with Bumble Bee (Bombus species) with back brushing stamens as it enters the flower, at Morrisville Riverfront Preserve, Morrisville, PA

Pale Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) with Bumble Bee (Bombus species) with back brushing stamens as it enters the flower, at Morrisville Riverfront Preserve, Morrisville, PA

Even in the insect world there are individuals who like to cut corners and get something for nothing.  There are insects that cheat, chewing through the spur to directly access the nectar. These insects by-pass the flower opening and its reproductive parts, so they’re no help to Jewelweed in its pollination mission.

Ruby-throated Hummingbirds are valuable pollination partners for Jewelweed. As these energetic little birds move from one Jewelweed flower to another, they are likely to pick up pollen on their heads as they brush against the anthers at the inside top of the flower entrance, subsequently depositing the pollen on the stigma of another flower.  In return, Jewelweed provides an important nectar source for them in late summer and early fall.

Male Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Male Ruby-throated Hummingbird

The name ‘Touch-me-not’ reflects the explosive spring-action opening of ripe fruit capsules. The slightest touch will trigger it, projecting the seeds for a distance of several feet.

Ripe Pale Jewelweed fruit capsule

Ripe Pale Jewelweed fruit capsule

The ripe capsule opens at the slightest touch

The ripe capsule opens at the slightest touch

Animal seed eaters include Ruffed Grouse, Bobwhites, mice and shrews.

Jewelweed also has a back-up plan for producing seed, one that doesn’t rely on the assistance of a third party for pollen transportation. In addition to the showy flowers that entice pollinators, Jewelweed produces cleistogamous flowers, a type of flower that doesn’t open and is self-fertilized. When the fruit capsules produced from these flowers open, the seeds fall in the vicinity of the parent plant.  The combination of the two types of flowers may allow Jewelweed to hold its existing territory, and extend it a bit.

Jewelweed contains lawsone, a compound with antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties. Jewelweed has been used to treat poison ivy exposure, and stings from stinging nettle and insects.

Jewelweed prefers moist soil, and is often found along streams, in wet meadows, roadsides, swamps and open woods.

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis ) at Wiessner Woods, Stowe, Vermont

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis ) at Wiessner Woods, Stowe, Vermont

It may establish a large colony, with individual plants often growing to a height of 5 feet (1.5 meters).

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis ) at Wiessner Woods, Stowe, Vermont

Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis ) at Wiessner Woods, Stowe, Vermont

The orange-flowered Jewelweed’s (Impatiens capensis) range includes the eastern two-thirds of the United States plus Idaho, Oregon and Washington, and all Canadian provinces and territories, except Nunavit.  Pale Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida) is less common, and more of an eastern species.  It can be found from Newfoundland and Labrador, west to Ontario and eastern North Dakota, and as far south as eastern Oklahoma and South Carolina.

 

Resources

Eastman, John. The Book of Swamp and Bog.  1995.

Eaton, Eric R.; Kauffman, Ken. Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America.  2007.

Evans, Arthur V. Beetles of Eastern North America.  2014.

Foster, Steven; Duke, James A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America.  2000.

Moerman, Daniel E. Native American Ethnobotany.  1998.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A. The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Colla, Sheila; Richardson, Leif; Williams, Paul. Bumble Bees of the Eastern United States. 2011

USDA Forest Service Plant of the Week – Jewelweed

Illinois Wildflowers

USDA NRCS Plant Database Impatiens capensis

USDA NRDS Plant Database Impatiens pallida

 

 

 

Watching Dragonflies: Eastern Pondhawks

Eastern Pondhawks (Erythemis simplicicollis) are dragonflies that perch when they hunt, usually on low foliage or on the ground.

Female Eastern Pondhawk, perching

Female Eastern Pondhawk, perching

Dragonflies are carnivores. They eat other insects ranging in size from tiny mosquitoes to dragonflies their own size, or for some dragonfly species, even larger.  Dragonflies lay their eggs in or near ponds, streams and lakes.  After the eggs hatch, their larvae develop in the water body, where they eat other aquatic insects, including mosquito larvae. They may even eat tadpoles.

Female Eastern Pondhawk, perching

Female Eastern Pondhawk, perching

Dragonflies have exceptional vision, the best of all insect species. Their large eyes are compound, consisting of thousands of simple eyes, and providing them almost a 360-degree field of vision.  This remarkable ability makes it easy for a dragonfly to spot its next meal, an insect on the wing.  When a dragonfly identifies a likely victim,

Female Eastern Pondhawk, "Whoa, I see a moth! Lunch!"

Female Eastern Pondhawk, “Whoa, I see a moth! Lunch!”

it is able to instantaneously calculate the speed and trajectory of its target’s flight, and determine the necessary speed and path for the dragonfly’s own flight, a calculation that will enable the dragonfly to expeditiously intercept its hapless quarry.  The world’s military forces have spent billions trying to replicate this capability!

Female Eastern Pondhawk, with moth. "Delicious!"

Female Eastern Pondhawk, with moth. “Delicious!”

Dragonflies themselves are prey for other animals, including spiders, tiger beetles, frogs, even fish, and birds such as flycatchers. A dragonfly’s broad range of vision can help alert it to the presence of a predator.  Its only blind spots are below its body and directly behind its head.  Hunting from ground level as Eastern Pondhawks do compensates for one of those blind spots.

A perch on a water lily leaf may leave a dragonfly vulnerable to aquatic predators like frogs or fish.

Male Eastern Pondhawk, perching

Male Eastern Pondhawk, perching

But a rock or other ground surface is usually pretty safe from predators from below.

Male Eastern Pondhawk, perching

Male Eastern Pondhawk, perching

Any of these perches offer a suitable takeoff surface for an Eastern Pondhawk to launch into flight and snag its next meal.

Male Eastern Pondhawk with insect. "Yum! This little critter didn't have a chance."

Male Eastern Pondhawk with insect. “Yum! This little critter didn’t have a chance.”

Look for Eastern Pondhawks in the neighborhood of any vegetated wetland.

Resources

Paulson, Dennis. Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East.  2011.