Blackberries, Butterflies, Bees and Birds

Common, or Allegheny, Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) brambles are blooming in woodlands and meadows throughout the local areas I frequent in central New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania.  This Rose (Rosaceae) family member can be found from Quebec to Ontario provinces in Canada, south as far as South Carolina and Oklahoma in the United States.  It is also present in California and British Columbia.

Common, or Allegheny, Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

At Bowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve, near New Hope, Pennsylvania, I found masses of Wild Blackberry blooming in the meadow. Traditionally, the entire meadow is mowed during the winter, but this year a new method of meadow maintenance was introduced, one recommended by the Xerces Society.  Only part of the site was mowed last year, in order to preserve habitat for overwintering insects, birds, and other animals.  This new technique is already paying off, with an impressive display of flowering Blackberry canes, and an equally impressive variety of native pollinators visiting the flowers.

I wasn’t the only one to discover the Blackberries in bloom. From a distance, I could see that at least three Monarch butterflies were already there, flirting and drinking nectar, drawing me in to get a closer look.  They were my first certain Monarch sighting of the season.

Monarch on Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Monarch on Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

The Monarchs weren’t alone. Little Wood Satyrs flitted about, occasionally stopping to drink nectar from the flowers.  Little Wood Satyrs are often found where woodlands meet meadow habitat.

Little Wood Satyr on Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Several Red-banded Hairstreaks visited the flowers, along with a few Zabulon Skippers, Eastern Tiger Swallowtails, and Silver-spotted Skippers.

Red-banded Hairstreak hanging out on Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail drinking nectar from Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Zabulon Skipper drinking nectar from Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Bees and Common Blackberry have a mutually beneficial relationship. Bees are important pollinators for Common Blackberry, and Common Blackberry is an important source of nectar and pollen for the bees.  While I watched, Mining Bees, Bumble Bees, Carpenter Bees and Honey Bees worked the flowers.

Mining Bee (Andrena species) with Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

A different Mining Bee (Andrena species) with Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Female Bumble Bee (Bombus species) foraging on Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis). Notice the huge orange load of pollen she has harvested to take back to her nest to feed her larvae.

Eastern Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa virginica) with Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis).

A pair of soldier beetles, Pennsylvania Leatherwings (Chauliognathus pensylvanicus) were mating at the same time the female impressively foraged the flowers for food, a pretty common beetle behavior combination.

A pair of soldier beetles, Pennsylvania Leatherwings (Chauliognathus pensylvanicus) mating, at the same time the female impressively forages Common Blackberry flowers for food.

A Flower or Syrphid Fly (Toxomerus geminatus) ate pollen from the flowers, probably not helping very much to pollinate the Blackberries.  Flies, bees and even beetles all consume some of the pollen.  Only about 2% of pollen is actually used for pollination. The rest serves as an enticement to flower visitors.

A Flower or Syrphid Fly (Toxomerus geminatus) eats pollen from Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) flowers

A Flesh Fly, and a Robber Fly disguised as a Bumble Bee paused on Blackberry leaves. As a carnivore, the Robber Fly’s mission is to capture and eat other insects.  The disguise may help it elude predators and seem harmless to its intended prey.

A Robber Fly ( Laphria flavicollis) pausing on a Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) leaf

A Flesh Fly (Sarcophaga species) on Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

At a woods edge location nearby in New Jersey, a Bumble Bee and Orange Sulphur enjoyed the nectar the Blackberries offered.

Bumble Bee (Bombus species) on Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis).

Orange Sulphur drinking nectar from Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis).

Common Blackberry has high value for other animals. The insect flower visitors will help to ensure a late summer feast of blackberries for birds, and mammals from mice to fox, and even bear.  They’re very healthy for humans, too!

Ripe fruit of Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis).

Wild Turkey is one of the many animals that benefit from eating Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) fruit

During the summer, these Common Blackberry brambles offer the perfect nesting habitat for Indigo Buntings. I saw a flash of blue feathers heading for a nearby tree, so they may already be in the process of establishing their nesting territory.

Male Indigo Bunting in Eastern Red Cedar

Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora), another Rose family member, is also in bloom.  This species was introduced from Asia for use in hedgerows, especially around farm fields.  As is so often the case, it turned out the introduction was a bad idea.  Multiflora Rose has since become invasive in much of the United States and Canada.  Several states list it as a noxious weed, and some prohibit it.

Plants and even animals that are introduced in a location far from where they evolved often become a problem in their new environment, since the natural predators with which they evolved are not present. In their native locations, these predators help to keep the plant or animal population in balance with other species.  Without these natural checks, the introduced species can crowd out the native plant species on which the animals with which they evolved depend.  We end up losing both plant and animal species as a result.

There is a family resemblance between Common Blackberry and Multiflora Rose, but it’s fairly easy to tell them apart.

Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) flowers

Common Blackberry flowers are usually white, about 1-1 ½ inches (2.54-3.8 cm) in diameter. The petals have rounded tips.  A large cluster of greenish pistils, the female reproductive flower parts, are visible at the center of the flowers.  These pistils together produce an aggregation of tiny fleshy fruits (called druplets) that are what we know as a blackberry.  The fruits start out green, turning red and eventually black when they’re ripe.  The stamens (male reproductive parts) surround the pistils.  They have white filaments topped with brownish anthers from which pollen is released.

Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora) flowers

Multiflora Rose flowers are also usually white, or rarely pinkish. They are just a bit smaller, and the tip of each petal is notched, not rounded.  There is a single greenish pistil at the center of the flower that produces a single round red berry-like fruit called a hip. The pistil is surrounded by stamens with creamy yellow filaments and darker golden anthers.  Multiflora Rose leaves have a distinctive fringe along the sides of the base of the stem.  This is not present in Common Blackberry.

Where I have seen Common Blackberry and Multiflora Rose in close proximity to each other, the pollinators always choose Common Blackberry. It may be a small sampling for a scientific study, but it seems like a pretty telling endorsement to me!

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail drinking nectar from Common Blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

Related Posts

Indigo Buntings – Living on the Edge!

For Information on Meadow Maintenance from the Xerces Society

http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/PollinatorsNaturalAreas_June2014_web.pdf

Mader, Eric; Shepherd, Matthew; Vaughan, Mace; Black, Scott Hoffman; LeBuhn, Gretchen. Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies. 2011.

The Xerces Society

Resources

Cech, Rick; Tudor, Guy. Butterflies of the East Coast.  2005.

Eaton, Eric R.; Kauffman, Ken. Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America.  2007.

Evans, Arthur V. Beetles of Eastern North America.  2014.

Mader, Eric; Shepherd, Matthew; Vaughan, Mace; Black, Scott Hoffman; LeBuhn, Gretchen. Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies. 2011.

Marshall, Stephen A. Insects Their Natural History and Diversity. 2006.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A. The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Illinois Wildflowers

USDA NRCS Database

Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center

For Information on Mutiflora Rose

USDA NRCS Database

USDA National Invasive Species Information Center

Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health

 

 

 

Northern Prickly-ash

I saw my first Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) on a walk through the woods in winter. The plentiful prickles along the branches and trunk

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) branch with prickles

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) branch with prickles

and the unusual fruit caught my eye.

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) with ripe fruit

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) with ripe fruit

Northern Prickly-ash is certainly prickly, but it isn’t an Ash at all. It does have compound leaves that resemble those of the Ashes (Fraxinus species), but that’s just a superficial resemblance.  Based on the structure of its flowers, Northern Prickly-ash has been classified as a member of the Rue (Rutaceae) family of plants, which is also called the Citrus family.

Like other members of the Rue family, Northern Prickly-ash’s foliage is covered with glands that are fragrant when crushed, emitting a somewhat lemon-like scent. Northern Prickly-ash blooms in spring before its leaves emerge, with male and female flowers usually on separate plants. The flowers are tiny, but they are fragrant, and attract a variety of bees and flies to visit.

By June, if the flowers were successfully pollinated by their visitors, a Northern Prickly-ash with female flowers will have fruit. Bobwhites, Red-eyed Vireos and Chipmunks are among the animals that eat the fruit.

Eastern Chipmunks may eat Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) fruit

Eastern Chipmunks may eat Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) fruit

While the fruit looks like a berry, but it is actually a follicle, a dry (not fleshy) fruit that splits open along a single seam. The fruit is green in early summer.

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) with unripe fruit

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) with unripe fruit

On its way to fully ripening it turns red.

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) with fruit in autumn

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) with fruit in autumn

By late fall or winter, the follicle ripens, turning brown, then splits open to reveal the seeds, usually one seed, or at most two per follicle.

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) fruit in late winter

Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) fruit in late winter

Not many insects eat the foliage of Northern Prickly-ash. The leaves contain toxic chemicals (furanocoumarins) that are a deterrent to herbivores. But the caterpillars of Giant Swallowtail butterflies specialize on the leaves of the Rue family members.  They have evolved to be able to ingest the toxins and sequester them in their bodies without experiencing any harmful effects.  Throughout the Giant Swallowtail’s life, from caterpillar to pupa to butterfly, these toxins protect them from being eaten by predators.  This is the same type of relationship that Monarch butterflies have with Milkweeds (Asclepias species).  Monarchs have evolved to specialize on Milkweeds as the only food their caterpillars can eat in exchange for the protection the plants’ toxins give them.

Plants and people have more in common than you might think. Both have mutually beneficial relationships with some fungi and bacteria (think of the good bacteria in your digestive system, and edible and medicinal mushrooms), and adversarial relationships with others that may cause disease.  Many plants have evolved to produce chemical compounds to defend against the predatory fungi, bacteria or microbes that might invade their tissues.  Sometimes those chemicals can also be beneficial to humans in treating diseases with similar causes.

Studies show that Northern Prickly-ash contains compounds with anti-fungal properties, and compounds that have cancer-fighting potential. Native North American medical traditions have long recognized the potential of Northern Prickly-ash for treating disease, using it for many purposes, including as an antirheumatic and pain reliever, for treating coughs, colds and pulmonary problems, heart problems, kidney problems, and Tuberculosis.  One of the most well-known medical applications for Northern Prickly-ash is the use of the inner bark as a toothache remedy, giving this tree another common name, Toothache-tree.

Northern Prickly-ash is native as far north as Quebec and Ontario, and south as far as Oklahoma, Louisiana and Florida, although it is rarer in the southeastern United States. It prefers moist well-drained soils, and can tolerate full sun to part shade.  Northern Prickly-ash can be found on stream banks and in wet woods, sometimes creating a thicket by reproducing through underground runners.

Mature Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) trunk and branches, with prickles

Mature Northern Prickly-ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) trunk and branches, with prickles

Winter is a good time to look for Northern Prickly-ash.  Take a walk and see if you can find its distinctive prickles and fruit.

Related Posts

Milkweed – It’s Not Just for Monarchs

What Winter Reveals: Hoptrees

Black Cherry – For Wildlife, and People, too!

Slippery Elm in Bloom

Resources

Cech, Rick; Tudor, Guy. Butterflies of the East Coast.  2005.

Foster, Steven; Duke, James A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America.  2000.

Moerman, Daniel E. Native American Ethnobotany.  1998.

Nelson, Gil; Earle, Christopher J.; Spellenberg, Richard. Trees of Eastern North America.  2014.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A. The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Missouri Botanical Garden

USDA Plant Database

Illinois Wildflowers

Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center

U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15957372

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11507740

 

 

Black Cherry – for Wildlife, and People, too!

Black Cherry or Wild Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) is a bountiful tree for wildlife, and an important species for humans, too.  It blooms in spring, with a profusion of long, slender, densely packed flower clusters.

Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) in bloom

Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) in bloom

The flowers offer nectar and pollen as enticements to a variety of bee and fly species who need this food to survive. The insects become Black Cherry’s unsuspecting pollination partners.  In return for the food provided to these insect floral visitors, the flowers benefit by having some of their pollen transported on the insects’ bodies and deposited advantageously for pollination on other Black Cherry flowers.  Successful pollination will result in fruit that ripens in late summer and fall.

A broad spectrum of animals eat Black Cherry’s fleshy fruit. Many thrushes, woodpeckers, sparrows, bluebirds, tanagers, orioles, and Cedar Waxings are among the dozens of bird species that eat the fruit.

Wood Thrush

Wood Thrush

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Mammals as diverse as fox, squirrels, chipmunks, mice and even Black Bears eat Black Cherry’s fruit.

Eastern Chipmunk

Eastern Chipmunk

The fruit has evolved to lure animals to help Black Cherry spread its seeds. In exchange for the meal, the seeds are ‘dispersed’ after traveling through the animals’ digestive tracts.

Hundreds of insect species depend on Black Cherry for food, and in some cases, shelter.

In spring, finger galls caused by a mite (Eriophyes cerasicrumena) are conspicuous on Black Cherry leaves.  A gall is a plant’s reaction to being used as food and shelter by an insect.  The mite will feed on the tissue inside the gall until the mite matures and emerges from the gall.

Finger galls caused by a mite (Eriophyes cerasicrumena) on Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) leaves

Finger galls caused by a mite (Eriophyes cerasicrumena) on Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) leaves

You may be used to seeing Eastern Tiger Swallowtail butterflies feeding on nectar from a variety of plants.

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail nectaring at Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) flowers

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail nectaring at Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) flowers

But Eastern Tiger Swallowtail caterpillars have a completely different diet. They depend on the leaves of several woody plants species as their food source, including Black Cherry.

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail caterpillar in Black Cherry leaf

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail caterpillar in Black Cherry leaf

Eastern Tiger Swallowtails are just one of 456 species of butterflies and moths whose caterpillars eat the leaves of Black Cherry and other Prunus species, according to research from Douglas W. Tallamy and the University of Delaware.  These caterpillars are in turn an important source of food for birds, especially when they are raising their young.

Tufted Titmouse - one of many bird species that harvest caterpillars from Black Cherry

Tufted Titmouse – one of many bird species that harvest caterpillars from Black Cherry

Tent caterpillars favor Black Cherry, a practice that gardeners usually view unfavorably.

Tent Caterpillar egg mass in winter

Tent Caterpillar egg mass in winter

But even Tent caterpillars have redeeming qualities, since they are an important food source for both Yellow- and Black-billed Cuckoos.

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Adult butterflies and moths may also become food for birds or other insects, and in the case of night-flying moths (including Tent caterpillars that survive to become adult moths), for bats.

In addition to the nectar offered by its flowers, Black Cherry provides nectar from glands on its leaf stems. These nectaries are not targeting pollinators.  Instead, they are there to lure a mercenary army of ants to protect the tree from herbivores, especially caterpillars. The nectaries entice ants to visit the trees for a drink.  While there, the ants may also help to keep the caterpillar population in check, since ants also need insect protein as part of their diet.

Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) in bloom

Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) in bloom

People benefit directly from Black Cherry trees.  In addition to the beauty of its flowers, fruits and foliage, Black Cherry’s wood is an important timber crop, primarily for use in furniture and cabinet making.  Black Cherry’s fruit is used to flavor brandies and to make a liqueur called cherry bounce.  The fruit is somewhat bitter, but with added sugar it can be used to make jellies.  Eating the raw fruit is not advisable, since the seeds can be toxic.  Medicinally, Black Cherry’s inner bark has been used in cough suppressants.

Black Cherry can grow to a maximum height of 80-100 feet (24-30 meters). Its range is primarily eastern North America, from Canada through the United States and south into Mexico, although it is an adaptable species and may also be found in some areas of the Pacific Northwest.

Providing beauty, timber, food and medicine for humans, food for birds, mammals, pollinators and hundreds of other insects, Black Cherry is among our most productive native trees.

Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) in bloom

Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) in bloom

Related Posts

Will Work for Food – Extrafloral Nectaries

Resources

Eastman, John. The Book of Forest and Thicket.  1992.

Eiseman, Charley; Charney, Noah. Tracks & Sign of Insects and Other Invertebrates. 2010.

Foster, Steven; Duke, James A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America.  2000.

Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism.  2003.

Peterson, Lee Allen. A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America. 1977.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A. The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Tallamy, Douglas W. Bringing Nature Home, 2007,

Illinois Wildflowers

USDA Plant Database

 

American Persimmon

If you look up while wandering in the woods in the fall, you may see bright orange ball-like fruit hanging like holiday ornaments from the bare branches of some deciduous trees. They are probably persimmons, the fruit of the American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) tree.

American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) fruit, Sourland Mountains, West Amwell, NJ

American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) fruit, Sourland Mountains, West Amwell, NJ

Male and female flowers are on separate trees, blooming in spring or early summer. Only the female trees bear fruit.  The eye-catching fruits are edible, very tasty and mildly sweet when they are ripe.  They can also be used for baking.

Humans are not the only ones who find these fruits desirable. Fox, raccoons, opossum, skunks and white-tailed deer are among the mammals that eat persimmons and help disperse their seeds.

Red Fox

Red Fox consume fruit, including persimmons

Birds that consume this tasty treat include Catbirds, American Robins, Cedar Waxwings, Mockingbirds,

Northern Mockingbird

Northern Mockingbird

Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers,

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

and the seasonally appropriate Wild Turkey.

Wild Turkey

Wild Turkey

The caterpillars of Luna, Regal and Hickory Horned Devil moths feed on American Persimmon leaves. The caterpillars may complete their metamorphosis to become moths, or they may become a meal for a hungry bird or other predator.

In addition to its fruit, American Persimmon can be recognized by its bark, which is deeply furrowed, forming rectangular blocks.

American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) bark, Sourland Mountains, West Amwell, NJ

American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) bark, Sourland Mountains, West Amwell, NJ

American Persimmon is a member of the ebony family, with wood that is very hard and shock resistant. It has been used to make textile shuttles, and for the heads of some golf clubs that are also called woods.

American Persimmon does well in a broad range of sites, from open fields to woodlands, in moist to dry soils, growing to a maximum height of about 50 feet (15 meters). Its native range is primarily the eastern and central United States, including parts of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and southern New York, as far west as Nebraska, and to the south from Texas to Florida.  It may also be found in parts of California and Utah.  Like Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana), American Persimmon is considered a pioneer species, one that is an early colonizer in the transition from a field to a forest.  It may eventually be shaded out as a mature forest rises above it.

American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) fruit, Sourland Mountains, West Amwell, NJ

American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) fruit, Sourland Mountains, West Amwell, NJ

 

Resources

Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. American Wildlife & Plants A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits.  1951.

Wagner, David L.; Caterpillars of Eastern North America, 2005.

Illinois Wildflowers

USDA Forest Service

USDA NRCS Database

USDA NRCS Plant Guide

 

 

 

Benefits of Pawpaws

The large, luscious fruit of Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) trees is ripening now. Its flavor is a bit reminiscent of a tropical fruit, hinting at banana or mango. In addition to people, the fruits are eaten by many other mammals, including raccoons, fox, and squirrels. These animals help to distribute Pawpaw’s seeds.

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) fruit

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) fruit

Pawpaws contain more nutrients than many more commonly eaten fruits, including apples, grapes and peaches. They contain annonaceous acetogenins, chemical compounds that have anticancer properties. These compounds are able to sap cancer cells of their energy, and are thought to have potential in treating cancers that are resistant to other drugs. The compounds are also effective against malaria, as well as other microbial infections.

In addition to having fruit with a tropical taste, this woodland understory tree has a tropical look, with long, broad, tapering leaves.

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) leaves

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) leaves

Pawpaw reproduces easily through its root system, tending to form colonies. It’s appropriate for this tree and its fruit to hint of the tropics, since it is a member of the Custard Apple (Annonaceae) plant family, the majority of whose members are native to the tropics.

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)

The leaves contain compounds that deter herbivores, so deer browsing is not a problem, and few insects eat the leaves. There are always exceptions, though. Zebra Swallowtail butterfly and Pawpaw Sphinx moth caterpillars can tolerate consuming these chemicals. As a result, the chemicals protect the caterpillars, pupae and adults of these species, making them less palatable to predators. As the trees prepare for their winter dormancy over the next few weeks, Pawpaw leaves will turn bright yellow before finally falling from their branches.

Look for the flowers of Pawpaw as the leaves unfold in spring, usually in early May.

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) flowers

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) flowers

Pawpaw’s dark reddish maroon flowers attract insects as pollinators, primarily flies that lay their eggs in carrion (dead rotting flesh!), where their larvae, called maggots, develop. Some Carrion beetles may also be pollinators for this species. Pawpaw has evolved to attract these insects as pollinators through deception. The flower color mimics the carrion these insects visit to lay their eggs.  But these flower visitors will have to keep searching to find the right food for their offspring.

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) flowers with a fly, a possible pollinator

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) flowers with a fly, a possible pollinator

Pollination is just one service these insects perform. Their larvae decompose and recycle the flesh of dead animals, a public sanitation function they share with vultures that is very important in helping to minimize the spread of disease.

Pawpaw trees can be found in rich, moist woods in the eastern United States from New York south to northern Florida, west across southern Ontario to Michigan, Illinois, and Iowa, south to Nebraska and eastern Texas. Kentucky State University has a full time research program aimed at developing and refining methods to cultivate Pawpaw as a viable commercial crop.

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) flower

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) flower

Resources

Beresford-Kroeger, Diana. Arboretum America: A Philosophy of the Forest. 2003

Illinois Wildflowers

Kentucky State University Pawpaw Program

The Alternative Medicine Pawpaw and Its Acetogenin Constituents Suppress Tumor Angiogenesis via the HIF-1/VEGF Pathway

USDA NRCS Plant Database

Virginia Cooperative Extension Specialty Crop Profile: Pawpaw