Another Migrating Butterfly, and the Plants that Sustain It

Common Buckeyes have been, well, really common this year.

Common Buckeye drinking nectar from Short-toothed Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum muticum)

That isn’t the case every year in the areas I frequent near the Delaware River in central New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania.  Common Buckeyes are not year-round residents this far north. They migrate south in late fall to spend the winter in warmer territories, often as far south as Florida.  In migration they can sometimes be seen in large numbers, often moving along the coast in the eastern United States, or sometimes following river valleys.  They migrate north in spring and early summer, sometimes reaching as far north as southern Canada.  Their numbers vary from year to year in these northern locations, becoming increasingly rare the further north they go.

On warm sunny days even in late October, I am still seeing Common Buckeyes often drinking nectar, mostly from flowers that are members of the Aster family.  This family of plants, which includes asters, goldenrods, sunflowers, bonesets, beggar-ticks, and more are typically the most abundant plants blooming in late summer through the end of the growing season.

Common Buckeye nectaring on Aromatic Aster (Symphyotrichum oblongifolium)

Common Buckeyes can also be found basking at ground level, catching the low rays from the late season sun.

Common Buckeye basking

Common Buckeyes frequent open fields, roadsides, gardens, and even beaches, especially where nectar plants are available.

Common Buckeye drinking nectar from goldenrod flowers along the sandy beach at Cape May, New Jersey

Common Buckeyes have a fairly broad geographic range, and have evolved to use a variety of plants as food for their caterpillars, including plantains, figworts,

Lanceleaf Figwort (Scrophularia lanceolata), a caterpillar food plant for Common Buckeye butterflies

gerardia,

Purple Gerardia or Purple False Foxglove (Agalinis purpurea), a caterpillar food plant for Common Buckeye butterflies

Monkey Flower,

Allegheny Monkey Flower (Mimulus ringens), a caterpillar food plant for Common Buckeye butterflies

and Wild Petunia.

Fringeleaf Wild Petunia (Ruellia humilis) a caterpillar food plant for Common Buckeye butterflies

The coloration of the Common Buckeye’s outside hind wing early in the season is mostly tan, with prominent eye spots.

Common Buckeye drinking nectar from Short-toothed Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum muticum). Note the tan color and eyespots of the hind wing.

The wing color can be quite different in late summer and fall, taking on a rosy hue.  This may be an adaptation that helps Common Buckeyes blend in with the changing color of the surrounding foliage.

Common Buckeye in autumn. Note the rosy color of the hind wing.

Keep an eye out for Common Buckeyes on these last warm days of fall!

Common Buckeyes on goldenrod

 

Resources

Brock, Jim P.; Kauffman, Ken.  Kaufman Field Guide to Butterflies of North America.  2003.

Cech, Rick; Tudor, Guy.  Butterflies of the East Coast.  2005.

Glassberg, Jeffrey.  A Swift Guide to Butterflies of North America.  2012.

Glassberg, Jeffrey.  Butterflies through Binoculars A Field Guide to Butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington Region.  1993.

Rhoads, Ann Fowler; Block, Timothy A.  The Plants of Pennsylvania.  2007

Wagner, David L.;  Caterpillars of Eastern North America, 2005.

Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Butterflies of Canada

Butterflies and Moths of North America

 

 

14 thoughts on “Another Migrating Butterfly, and the Plants that Sustain It

  1. I love the variety of butterflies in the USA! There are so many species I have never seen before like the Common Buckeyes.
    The colour of this beautiful creature is like the foliage of autumn. Fantastic! Thank you for sharing your great pictures!

  2. I have them in my garden in Erie, PA. I planted snapdragons and allow plantains to grow in my backyard. I had read that Common Buckeye eggs used to be sold to gardeners for “weed control” since they are generalists and eat a lot of different plants.

  3. I was just delighted by your photographs this time more than ever! You have a way of making these Buckeyes look like professional models. I will be in the lookout. I did notice more of these this year. Maybe the native plant message is getting out there. A million thanks.

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